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Menopause and Sexuality

Publication Date: December 29, 2022

By: NWHN Staff


Is Diminished Sexuality Inevitable During Menopause?

For most people, at least some aspects of sexuality decline with age, such as level of desire or frequency of sexual activity. This happens for many biological and non-biological reasons, including a person’s general well-being and health, lifestyle, and interpersonal and psychosocial factors (like the quality of a relationship or mental health issues).

Contrary to popular misconception, the menopausal transition and resulting drop in estrogen levels does not doom a woman to enter a sexual desert. Women can feel varying degrees of change in sexual function during menopause, but these changes are not absolute, constant, or irreversible. Both men and women experience declining sexual desire and activity with age,[1] and studies show that factors connected to one’s relationship and partner play an important role in levels of desire and the frequency of sexual activity.[2]

Every woman, menopausal or not, has her unique approach to and expectations about sexuality. Desire and dysfunction vary from woman to woman. Some menopausal women may not engage in sexual activity due to a lack of desire and, in the absence of partners’ or personal expectations, may pass through menopause without any complaints about sexuality. Others may feel desire but face difficulty in sexual satisfaction due to pain or vaginal dryness. Some women don’t experience any changes at all that they associate with menopause.

The longest-running study of women’s experience with aging looked specifically at the issue of changes in sexual functioning. The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), which follows women who were between 42 and 52 when the study began, examined the relative contribution of menopause and other factors on changes in sexuality.[3]

In a six-year follow-up of study participants, researchers found that:[4]

  • Menopausal women can and do enjoy sexual activity.
  • The menopausal transition does not independently cause women’s diminished sexual arousal, reduced sexual activity, and lower levels of physical pleasure, although it can contribute to these issues.
  • Vasomotor menopausal symptoms of hot flashes and night sweats are not directly related to sexual functioning. When these menopausal symptoms cause distress and interfere with sleep, however, they can indirectly contribute to psychological factors that affect sexual functioning.
  • Vaginal dryness, which is one of the most common symptoms of menopause, can cause vaginal pain and reduced physical pleasure during penetration, which may lead to diminished sexual desire during menopause.

Additional Information:

What Factors Affect Sexuality in Menopause?

As noted, several factors can affect a person’s experience and sexuality, including:

  • General health and well-being: Cardiovascular disease, obesity, joint problems, and urogenital conditions (like urinary incontinence and pelvic surgery) may impact comfort with sexual activity.
  • Lifestyle factors: Exercise and a healthy diet protect against conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes that can impact health and sexuality. Several strong research studies have found that being physically active is associated with higher levels of sexual engagement and enjoyment.
  • Interpersonal factors: The quality of a relationship with a partner and the partner’s general and sexual health can contribute to the sexual experiences and satisfaction. The Melbourne Women’s Midlife Health Project (MWMHP) found that relationship factors and prior sexual function were more important determinants of sexual responsiveness than women’s estrogen levels.[5]
  • Psychosocial factors: Women who are depressed or have higher anxiety levels have less optimal sexual functioning. The Women’s Health Initiative’s (WHI) observational study found that – irrespective of the stage of menopause – higher reported levels of social support (like having friends) lead to higher levels of sexual engagement and enjoyment.[6]

Is There a Pill for Desire?

When sildenafil (Viagra) was approved to treat erectile dysfunction in men, many women argued, only half-jokingly, that gender equity demanded a similar pill for women. (Viagra itself doesn’t work in women.[10] [11] [12]) Drug companies wholeheartedly agreed and poured millions of dollars into the search for a drug for women. After many failed attempts to find a drug for women, one is on the market. Flibanserin (Addyi), the “female sexual dysfunction” pill, was approved by the FDA in August 2015, over the objections of the NWHN and other feminist and consumer health activists.

Viagra helps men who already want to have sex but who have physiological problems; it is taken before sexual activity and increases blood flow to the penis. Addyi, on the other hand, changes women’s brain chemistry to help them want to want to have sex; it has to be taken every day. Unfortunately, Addyi doesn’t seem to work very well: after adjusting for a placebo, only about 10 to 12 percent of women in the drug’s clinical trials reported even minimal benefits from the drug [13]. The drug doesn’t make it easier for women to achieve orgasm or make sex more enjoyable for either partner.

The NWHN believes that there are too many unresolved questions about Addyi’s serious side effects (which include sudden prolonged unconsciousness and dangerously low blood pressure) and too little evidence that it works to recommend it to anyone. Learn More about Addyi


  • [1] Lindau ST, Schumm LP, Laumann EO, Levinson W, O’Muircheartaigh CA, Waite LJ. A study of sexuality and health among older adults in the Unites States. N Engl J Med 2007; 357(8): 762-764.
  • [2] Huang AJ, Subak LL, Thom DH, Van Den Eden SK, Ragins Al, Kuppermann M, Shen H, Brown JS. Sexual Function and aging in racially and ethnically diverse women. J Am Geriatr Doc 2009; 57(8): 1362-1368.
  • [3] Longitudinal Changes in Sexual Functioning as Women Transition Through Menopause: Results from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Menopause. 2009; 16(3): 442-452.
  • [4] Correlates of Sexual Satisfaction Among Sexually Active Postmenopausal Women in the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study. J Gen Intern Med 2008; 23(12):2000-2009.
  • [5] Hess R, et al. Association of lifestyle and relationship factors with sexual functioning of women during midlife. J Sex Med 2009; 6(5): 1358-1368
  • [6] Hayes R, Dennerstein L. The impact of aging on sexual function and sexual dysfunction in women: a review of population-based studies. J Sex Med 2005; 2(3):317-330.
  • [7] Van der Laak, JA, de Bie LM, de Leeuw H et al.The Effect of Replens® on Vaginal Cytology in the Treatment of Postmenopausal Atrophy: Cytomorphology Versus Computerized Cytometry. Journal of Clinical Pathology 2002; 55(6): 446-451.
  • [8] Suckling JA, Kennedy R, Lethaby A, Roberts H. Local estrogen for vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD001500.
  • [9] Hemminki, Elina et al. “The Effects of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy on Social Activity, Partner Relationship, and Sexual Life – Experience from the EPHT Trial.” BMC Women’s Health 9 (2009): 16. PMC.
  • [10] Basson R, McInnes R, Smith MD, et al. Efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate in women with sexual dysfunction associated with female sexual arousal disorder. J Women’s Health Gend Based Med 2002; 11:367-377.
  • [11] Berman JR, Berman LA, Toler SM et al. Safety and efficacy of sildenafil citrate for the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder: a double blind, placebo controlled study. J Urol 2003; 170:2333-2338.
  • [12] Basson R, Brotto LA. Sexual psychophysiology and effects of sildenafil citrate in estrogenised women with acquired genital arousal disorder and impaired orgasm: a randomized controlled trial. BJOG 2003; 110:1014-1024.
  • [13] National Women’s Health Network (NWHN), Fact Sheet: Top Ten Things to Know About Addyi,” Washington, DC: NWHN, 2016. Online at:


Many factors can drive changes in sexuality as women age. We advise women not to approach menopause with any preconceived fears of losing their sexuality or ability to experience sexual pleasure. Instead, we encourage women to be aware of the different issues that can affect their lives, including their sexuality and explore ways to address these changes during and after the menopausal transition.

Edited 11/13/2023 by Rachel Grimsley, RN, BSN, MSN, Nurse Writer

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